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Gulf societies
in the energy transition era

Social Contract

Youth fear the energy transition would imply a gradual demise of the Gulf Arab states' generous unique welfare system that is until today the primary vehicle for governments to redistribute a significant share of oil and gas revenues.



It wasn't long ago that Gulf Arab states were actively promoting ultra-conservative interpretations of Islam. But times are changing and the region is forced into a comprehensive rethink of its core values. Will economic liberalisation be mirrored by religious liberalisation?



Experts have long called for reforming education systems in the Gulf to develop critical thinking among the youth. According to the World Bank, “teaching methodologies remain teacher-centered,” mirroring top-down centered Gulf societies. Innovation‐driven education systems are vital to diversifying Gulf economies beyond oil and gas revenues.


Cultural Change

Gulf governments have actively promoted national unity over a constellation of identities scattered across the region to craft national identities. In the energy transition era, what place for ancestral know-how and local traditions?

  • Oman’s national unity racks up high cultural costs as rich linguistic diversity falls silent- Al-Monitor, United States.

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